Monday, 25 July 2022

Humans Have Been In The Arctic For Over 40,000 Years – New Discoveries Reveal

Scientists have found evidence the first humans to inhabit the Arctic appeared about 40,000 years ago, at the beginning of the Late Paleolithic.

The discovery was made by scientists from the Siberian Section of the Russian Academy of Sciences (СО РАН) conducted radiocarbon analyses of reindeer antler fragments found at the Kushevat Paleolithic site in the Lower Ob region.

Humans Have Been In The Arctic For Over 40,000 Years – New Discoveries Reveal
Credit: Adobe Stock – anibal

In addition to the antler bones, scientists also examined a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), a steppe bison (Bison priscus), Elk (Alces alces), deer (Cervus elephus sibiricus), and, potentially, a musk ox (Ovibos moschatus). Analyses of the bones dated them back to a series of 20 different radiocarbon dates, all ranging from the period between 20 and 40 thousand years ago.

Although this finding solely points to animals, and not humans, inhibiting the Arctic region 40,000 years back, the discovery has now become the basis of further analyses, which currently date human activity in the Ob region back to 40,000 years ago. This is because two reindeer antlers held traces of human activity amongst this group of bones, which have only recently been analyzed.

The question of the initial settlement of the Arctic and Subarctic by an ancient man of the modern type (Homo sapiens sapiens) has long been of interest to scientists. The valley of the Ob River is often considered a potential migration route for Paleolithic man.

It is believed that modern man came to Europe and Asia 50,000 -60,000 thousand years ago.

What is still unclear is where the modern man lived before and how he crossed the Urals? For a long time, the hypothesis prevailed that 12,000 -30,000 years ago, the north of Western Siberia was covered by a large glacier (just like the north of America and Europe). To the south of this glacier was a dammed basin reaching 130 meters. For this reason, it was believed that looking for archaeological sites dating back to the period of 30-40 thousand years ago in the north was pointless. It was confirmed by the almost complete absence of finds (tools, sites, organic matter).

Humans Have Been In The Arctic For Over 40,000 Years - New Discoveries Reveal
Fragment of reindeer antler with traces of anthropological impact.
Illustration source: “Archaeology, Ethnography and Anthropology of Eurasia” (vol. 49, no. 1 – 2021)

“Thanks to the international research program using AMS dating and optical-stimulating luminescence, our colleagues from Europe and Russia proved that there was no ice cover in the north of Western Siberia 12,000 – 30,000 years ago. It was much earlier: 90,000 -60,000 years ago north of Salekhard. The level of the ice-dammed basin in the Ob valley did not exceed 60 meters.

This is an entirely different paleogeographic picture. For thirty years, I was convinced that in the north of Western Siberia, there were all the conditions for the existence of an ancient person. Now we had the opportunity to try to prove it: to find traces of Homo sapiens in the north of the Ob 30,000 – 50,000 years ago “, – the project manager, head of the laboratory of the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy named after V.I. V.S commented in a press statement.

As reported by the Barents Observer “the analysis suggests that Homo sapiens and not only Neanderthals inhabited the Arctic Circle in the Upper Paleolithic age. About two decades ago, it was only certain that Neanderthals, and not Homo sapiens, were occupants in the region during the period. This was discovered by radiocarbon dating a set of bones unearthed in 2001 at the Yakutia site. The radiocarbon analysis suggested that the Neanderthals had found themselves in the region approximately 28,500–27,000 years ago.

The new AMS analysis has hence provided two major breakthroughs. The first one being that Homo sapiens, as well as Neanderthals, inhabited the Arctic circle during the Paleolithic Age. And the second find being that Homo sapiens lived north of the Arctic circle already 40,000 years ago.”

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Friday, 22 July 2022

From the Pyramids to Stonehenge – were Prehistoric People Astronomers?

From the Pyramids to Stonehenge – were Prehistoric People Astronomers?
All Giza Pyramids in one shot. ( CC BY-SA 2.0 )

Ever since humans could look up to see the sky, we have been amazed by its beauty and untold mysteries. Naturally then, astronomy is often described as the oldest of the sciences, inspiring people for thousands of years. Celestial phenomena are featured in prehistoric cave paintings . And monuments such as the Great Pyramids of Giza and Stonehenge seem to be aligned with precision to cardinal points or the positions where the moon, sun or stars rise and set on the horizon.

Today, we seem to struggle to imagine how ancient people could build and orient such structures. This has led to many assumptions. Some suggest prehistoric people must have had some knowledge of mathematics and sciences to do this, whereas others go so far as to speculate that alien visitors showed them how to do it.

But what do we actually know about how people of the past understood the sky and developed a cosmology? A scientific discipline called “archaeoastronomy” or “cultural astronomy”, developed in the 1970s, is starting to provide insights. This subject combines various specialist areas, such as astronomy, archaeology, anthropology and ethno-astronomy.

Simplistic Methods
The pyramids of Egypt are some of the most impressive ancient monuments, and several are oriented with high precision. Egyptologist Flinder Petrie carried out the first high-precision survey of the Giza pyramids in the 19th century. He found that each of the four edges of the pyramids’ bases point towards a cardinal direction to within a quarter of a degree.

But how did the Egyptians know that? Just recently, Glen Dash , an engineer who studies the Giza pyramids, proposed a theory . He draws upon the ancient method of the “Indian circle” , which only requires a shadow casting stick and string to construct an east-west direction. He outlined how this method could have been used for the pyramids based on its simplicity alone.

So could this have been the case? It’s not impossible, but at this point we are in danger of falling into a popular trap of reflecting our current world views, methods and ideas into the past. Insight into mythology and relevant methods known and used at the time are likely to provide a more reliable answer.

From the Pyramids to Stonehenge – were Prehistoric People Astronomers?
Stonehenge sun. (Image: simonwakefield CC BY 2.0 )

This is not the first time scientists have jumped to conclusions about a scientific approach applied to the past. A similar thing happened with Stonehenge. In 1964, the late astronomer Gerald Hawkins developed an intricate method to use pit holes and markers to predict eclipses at the mysterious monument. However, this does not mean that this is how Stonehenge was intended to be used.

Way Forward
To start understanding the past we need to include various approaches from other disciplines to support an idea. We also have to understand that there will never be only one explanation or answer to how a monument might have been aligned or used.

So how can cultural astronomy explain the pyramids’ alignment? A study from 2001 proposed that two stars, Megrez and Phad, in the stellar constellation known as Ursa Major may have been the key. These stars are visible through the entire night. Their lowest position in the sky during a night can mark north using the merkhet - an ancient timekeeping instrument composing a bar with a plumb line attached to a wooden handle to track stars’ alignment.

The benefit of this interpretation is that it links to star mythology drawn from inscriptions in the temple of Horus in Edfu . These elaborate on using the merkhet as a surveying tool – a technique that can also explain the orientation of other Egyptian sites. The inscription includes the hieroglyph “ the Bull’s Foreleg ” which represents the Big Dipper star constellation and its possible position in the sky.

From the Pyramids to Stonehenge – were Prehistoric People Astronomers?
The use of the two stars Megrez and Phad of Ursa Major to line up with the cardinal north direction (meridian indicated in orange) as simulated for 2562BC. Daniel Brown

Similarly, better ideas for Stonehenge have been offered. One study identified strange circles of wood near the monument, and suggested these may have represented the living while the rocks at Stonehenge represented the dead. Similar practices are seen in monuments found in Madagascar , suggesting it may have been a common way for prehistoric people to think about the living and the dead. It also offers an exciting new way of understanding Stonehenge in its wider landscape. Others have interpreted Stonehenge and especially its avenue as marking the ritual passage through the underworld with views of the moon on the horizon.

See also: Alien Artifacts From Ancient Egypt Found In Jerusalem & Kept Secret by Rockefeller Museum

Cultural astronomy has also helped shed light on 6,000-year-old passage graves – a type of tomb consisting of a chamber of connected stones and a long narrow entrance – in Portugal. Archaeologist Fabio Silva has shown how views from inside the tombs frame the horizon where the star Aldebaran rises above a mountain range. This might mean it was built to give a view of the star from the inside either for the dead or the living, possibly as an initiation ritual.

From the Pyramids to Stonehenge – were Prehistoric People Astronomers?
Fieldwork at one of the passage graves in Portugal, Dolmen da Orca. Next to the stone structure is a replica tent to simulate the view from inside of the passage grave. Daniel Brown

But Silva also drew upon wider supporting evidence. The framed mountain range is where the builders of the graves would have migrated with their livestock over summer. The star Aldebaran rises for the first time here in the year – known as a helical rising – during the beginning of this migration. Interestingly, ancient folklore also talks about a shepherd in this area who spotted a star so bright that it lit up the mountain range. Arriving there he decided to name both the mountain range and his dog after the star – both names still exist today.

Current work carried out by myself in collaboration with Silva has also shown how a view from within the long, narrow entrance passages to the tombs could enhance the star’s visibility by restricting the view through an aperture.

But while it is easy to assume that prehistoric people were analytic astronomers with great knowledge of science, it’s important to remember that this only reflects our modern views of astronomy. Findings from cultural astronomy show that people of the past were indeed sky watchers and incorporated what they saw in many aspects of their lives. While there are still many mysteries surrounding the meaning and origins of ancient structures, an approach drawing on as many areas as possible , including experiences and engaging in meaning is likely our best bet to work out just what they were once used for.

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Monday, 18 July 2022

Hidden Inca Water System Beneath The Machu Picchu Jungle Discovered By LIDAR

There is much evidence the Incas were skilled in regard to water engineering. One of their greatest accomplishments is the Incamisana water temple at Ollantaytambo in Peru that was “constructed for the worship of deities who gave the Inca people water and water itself. Even today in our modern terms, the structure represents the Inca’s masterpiece of both civil engineering and construction. It was designed to focus on religious ceremonies and offerings.

Hidden Inca Water System Beneath The Machu Picchu Jungle Discovered By LIDAR
Machu Picchu. Credit: Pixabay – 4758892 – Public Domain

It’s definitely a truly remarkable achievement especially if we consider the region’s harsh weather and the altitude of 2,792 m (9,160 ft) above sea level.” 

Now, thanks to LIDAR scientists have learned more about the Incas knowledge of hydraulic systems.

Lidar, or Light Detection and Ranging, is a remote sensing method used to examine the surface of the Earth and has been lately helpful to archaeologists to study areas that were once too dangerous or inaccessible. Archaeologists have in recent years discovered many fascinating ancient structures with help of LIDAR. The recent satellite images have revealed a hidden Inca water system beneath the Machu Picchu Jungle.

Read also: Ancient City Machu Picchu Was Originally Called Huayna Picchu By The Incas – Study Of The Name Reveals

In the study published in the Journal of Archaeological Science, Polish researchers write,” the Chachabamba archaeological site contains a unique water complex erected and modified by the Incas. Based on archaeological investigations within the ceremonial sector, it has been established that the function of this water complex was strictly ceremonial. Moreover, hydrodynamic studies of the water supply canals have verified the previous findings.

Hidden Inca Water System Beneath The Machu Picchu Jungle Discovered By LIDAR
Credit: Sieczkowska Dominika – Journal of Archaeological Science

Due to the complex characteristics of the site, which is largely overgrown by dense vegetation, we employed a methodology not previously applied in the region. Three-dimensional documentation techniques were used to produce hydrodynamic analyses of the site, which facilitated the preparation of appropriate models that are key to understanding the function of the entire water system.”

Hidden Inca Water System Beneath The Machu Picchu Jungle Discovered By LIDAR
Credit: Sieczkowska Dominika – Journal of Archaeological Science

According to Dominika Sieczkowska, deputy director of the organization and development of the Centre for Andean Studies at the University of Warsaw, who led the research “only very privileged people could get to Machu Picchu, because it was a very special place,” she says. “When you went there, you had to stop in Chachabamba to take a spiritual bath to be clean and pure to get to Machu Picchu.”

Hidden Inca Water System Beneath The Machu Picchu Jungle Discovered By LIDAR
Incamisana Water Temple. Credit: Adobe Stock – videobuzzing

“The discovery is about a dozen small structures that supplied water to the archaeological and ceremonial complex of Chachabamba. It is located on a mostly flat terrain in the Vilcanota valley in southeastern Peru (2170 m.a.s.l.). The stone archaeological monuments that make it up are the main altar and fourteen surrounding baths. The investigations of the hydraulic system have shown that the fourteen stone bodies exercised the unique role of ceremonial purification baths in relation to the ceremonial character of the site.

The Chachabamba water system was specifically for rituals. It is fed by the Urubamba River, called Willkamayu and considered sacred by the Incas,” the Arch Daily reports.

The Inca’s design of water systems was influenced by their strong beliefs in power of water.

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Tuesday, 12 July 2022

Has A 12,000-Year-Old Underwater City Been Discovered Off The Coast Of Louisiana?

At present, more than 80% of the ocean remains unexplored. In recent years, underwater archaeologists have discovered magnificent, ancient ruins and startling prehistoric artifacts. Scientists are confident more underwater treasures will be found in the future.

Still, some discoveries, like this one, are truly spectacular. George Gelé, an amateur archaeologist claims there is a 12,000-year-old underwater city off the coast of Louisiana. It sounds almost too good to be true, but anything is possible if we keep an open mind.

Has A 12,000-Year-Old Underwater City Been Discovered Off The Coast Of Louisiana?
Is there an ancient underwater city off the coast of Louisiana? Credit: Adobe Stock – Rob

Gelé has put forward an interesting theory suggesting there are mysterious granite mounds off the coast of the Chandeleur Islands in the Gulf of Mexico, 50 miles east of New Orleans. Experts have so far not backed his theory, and it’s fair to say the jury is still out there on this one.

This is by no means an ordinary ancient city. According to Gelé, there is a pyramid in the middle of the city, and it emits such a strong energy that sailors’ compass malfunction.

In an interview with WWL-TV, local shrimper Ricky Robin stated the compass on his boat spun completely around when he was in the vicinity of the place where the alleged underwater pyramid is located.

“What’s down there are hundreds of buildings that are covered with sand and silt and that are geographically related to the Great Pyramid at Giza,” Gelé told local CBS affiliate WWL-TV.

Has A 12,000-Year-Old Underwater City Been Discovered Off The Coast Of Louisiana?
Are these ruins natural or ma-made? Credit: WWLTV

“Everything will go out on your boat, all your electronics,” Robin said.

“Like as if you were in the Bermuda Triangle. That’s exactly what we got here.”

Robin said the area has been a point of local discussion as fishermen reported catching strange square rocks in their nets over the years.

“I thought right away it was pieces of the pyramid because it was right around where that compass spun,” Robin said.

“Somebody floated a billion stones down the Mississippi River and assembled them outside what would later become New Orleans.”

“The existence of this site has long intrigued Isleño fishermen and mariners familiar with the area,” The St. Bernard Voice wrote ahead of a lecture by Gelé in January.

“Who could have constructed a solid granite structure roughly the size of the Caesar’s Superdome in these waters, now covered with silt?

“Mr. Gelé has interesting theories about the origin, age, and purpose of this pyramidal structure.”

Gelé, who calls the enigmatic underwater site Crecsentis says scientists should pay attention to the fact granite is not found naturally in Louisiana or Mississippi. If these are granite mounds, who raised them, and where did the builders get the granite?

Has A 12,000-Year-Old Underwater City Been Discovered Off The Coast Of Louisiana?
Where did the granite come from? Credit: WWLTV

According to Gelé, this ancient underwater mystery could be solved with the help of modern sonar technology and satellite imaging.

Gelé’s discovery has made some scientists curious, and though they acknowledge something is “down there,” they have different theories attempting to explain this underwater mystery.

In the 1980s, a Texas A&M study proposed the underwater granite was from shipwrecks or piles of ballast stones thrown from old vessels, WWL-TV reported. It is possible the rocks were dumped from Spanish or French ships to lighten the boats as they entered shallow waters on the way to New Orleans.

LSU archaeology professor Rob Mann has previously suggested that granite stones were placed at this spot in the 1940s when an attempt to build an artificial coral reef was made.

Has A 12,000-Year-Old Underwater City Been Discovered Off The Coast Of Louisiana?
Egyptian Sphinx and Pyramids underwater. Credit: Adobe Stock – Maurizio

In an interview with The Advocate Mann said:” I think simply searching underwater at this point won’t give us any more answers. When the historical archive work is done, looking at records and newspapers, that’s when we will know what it is.”

Mann stated it is vital to find out why the barge loads of stone were dumped at this particular site.

Gelé is aware his controversial theory has been met with skepticism, but he is still confident “something” is hidden underwater, and in his opinion, it is a structure built by an ancient lost civilization.

“All I know is somebody built a city 12,000 years ago and it’s stuck out in Chandeleur,” Gelé claimed.

“Whether or not they had someone on their shoulder who flew in with a UFO, I don’t know.

All I know is they left a whole lot of granite rocks out there,” he says.

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Sunday, 26 June 2022

10 Bizarre Ancient Roman Laws and Customs That Were Considered Normal

The Roman Empire is seen as remarkably advanced for its time. With indoor heating and decent plumbing, they were the height of civilization at the time.

But they also had some really peculiar laws and customs as part of everyday life. Check out ten of them below.

1. Women couldn’t cry at funerals
It has always been the case that the more mourners a person has at a funeral, the more popular they are deemed to be. As such, Romans would hire professional mourners to weep at a family member’s funeral.

However, things soon got out of hand as actors were hired who would wail loudly and tear their clothes. It was decided that a law was needed to restrain the practice, and so women were banned from crying at funerals.

Why were only women banned? Because a man would bring disgrace on himself if caught weeping in public.

10 Bizarre Ancient Roman Laws and Customs That Were Considered Normal
Funeral Of An Emperor In Ancient Rome. From A 19Th Century Engraving. (Photo Credit: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)

2. Everyone was equal in the bathhouse
While in everyday life slaves were denied many of the luxuries regularly enjoyed by their masters, the bathhouse was one exception. There, everyone from slave to emperor could strip down, run a strigil all over their body, and then relax in warm water or refresh themselves by diving into the freezing plunge pool.

10 Bizarre Ancient Roman Laws and Customs That Were Considered Normal
Interior of a bath house; people bathing using the strigil. (Photo Credit: Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images. Copyrighted work available under Creative Commons Attribution only licence CC BY 4.0)

3. Going to the toilet could be a dangerous business
While going to the baths might be a pleasant experience, going to the toilet wasn’t. As well as public lavatories being nothing more than a bench with lots of holes, there was the real risk of a rat crawling up the open pipe and biting your behind. As such, better sewage systems had “rat blockers” installed.

Given that in place of lavatory paper Romans used sponges on sticks (communal ones, rinsed in saltwater and vinegar between users), it’s safe to say that relaxing in the bathhouse was necessary to erase the trauma of going to the toilet.

10 Bizarre Ancient Roman Laws and Customs That Were Considered Normal
Picture of squatter superimposed on Roman public toilets (Photo Credit: Jonathan108 – Own work, Public Domain)

4. Urine was the best detergent
However, public toilets had one major benefit for Ancient Rome: urine.

There was no going to the forum to buy soap or washing powder – people in Ancient Rome washed their clothes in urine. The ammonia in the liquid helped get those togas sparkling.

Of course, that made washing an even nastier job than normal, so people would take their clothes to a fullonica (laundry) and workers called fullones would clean a household’s laundry. Didn’t stop people from cleaning their teeth with urine though…

10 Bizarre Ancient Roman Laws and Customs That Were Considered Normal
Fresco depicting The Laundrymen, from Pompeii (UNESCO World Heritage List, 1997), Campania. Roman Civilization, 1st Century. Naples, Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Archaeological Museum) (Photo Credit: DeAgostini/Getty Images)

5. It was a crime for commoners to wear purple
Clothes were an indication of status, and colors could be used to exhibit your wealth. Purple dye was obtained from shellfish in a costly method, but when used on cloth, the colors were vibrant and wouldn’t fade in the sunlight. It cost a lot of money to dye fabric purple, so to begin with, only the rich could wear it. By the fourth century AD, it was a color only the emperor could wear.

10 Bizarre Ancient Roman Laws and Customs That Were Considered Normal
Publicity still from ‘Rome,’ 2005 (Photo Credit: HBO)

6. Their punishments were terrifyingly inventive
If someone had committed a particularly unpleasant crime, the punishment they faced could be equally unpleasant. Since Romans venerated father figures and the family, anyone who committed parricide (the killing of a parent or close family member) would face being put in a sack with various live animals and thrown into the water to drown. The idea was that the person was so heinous, they shouldn’t be allowed to touch or even die on good, honest Roman soil.

Some writings just say the guilty person was sewn into the sack with live snakes, while others state that a snake, a monkey, a dog, and a rooster were included. But all records agree it was a horrific punishment and a good deterrent.

10 Bizarre Ancient Roman Laws and Customs That Were Considered Normal
Ancient Rome: Law, Punishment of traitors, Throw from the Tarpeian Rock in Rome – Coloured engraving by Heinrich Leutemann (1824-1905) – Bilder aus dem Altertume (Pictures from Antiquity) 1866 (Photo Credit: Stefano Bianchetti/Corbis via Getty Images)

7. No burial if you’re killed by lightning
The gods were always present in daily Roman life. Since Jupiter carried thunderbolts, anyone killed by lightning was deemed to have been killed by the father of the gods himself. Thus, burying the body would be depriving Jupiter of his sacrifice.

If you did choose to bury someone who died this way, then you would be sacrificed to Jupiter in their place.

10 Bizarre Ancient Roman Laws and Customs That Were Considered Normal
Engraving depicting Jupiter (or Jove) the supreme Roman God (Zeus of the Greeks), son of Saturn (Greek Cronus) who he is dethroning. Lord of heaven and bringer of light- in his right hand he is holding lightning. Dated 18th century. (Photo Credit: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)

8. You had to have an altar inside your house
While everyone worshipped and made sacrifices to the great gods like Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, every household had its own family and domestic gods.

Household deities included Vesta (goddess of the hearth), Lares, and Penates. The family would have statues of them on an altar and carry out various rituals to appease them. This could be as simple as throwing a bit of bread onto the fire during every meal. Failing to honor them would bring bad luck.

10 Bizarre Ancient Roman Laws and Customs That Were Considered Normal
Roman civilization, 2nd century b.C. Altar dedicated to the Lares Augusti by the Vicomagistri of the Vicus Sandalarius. Copy from the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. (Photo Credit: DEA / A. DAGLI ORTI/De Agostini via Getty Images)

9. You could sell your children as slaves – but only three times
If a Roman father had more kids than he knew what to do with, he could enter into a contract with someone to take one or more of his children away as slaves. Unlike other slaves, the children would be returned after a set time.

However, if a father sold the same child three times, he was considered an unfit parent. Consequently, once the child’s term as a slave was over, they were emancipated from their parents.

10 Bizarre Ancient Roman Laws and Customs That Were Considered Normal
Roman mosaic from Pompeii, of a boy slave in a kitchen with fruit and fish. Now in the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg, 1st century. (Photo Credit: CM Dixon/Print Collector/Getty Images)

10. Women had to leave home three days a year or become property
A man in Rome could own anything – including his wife. A wife who didn’t leave her husband’s home for three days in a row once every year would automatically become her husband’s property under the usucpio rules. These rules deemed a man owned anything he had possessed long enough, so wives were in the habit of taking regular three-day holidays to make sure they remained their own person.

10 Bizarre Ancient Roman Laws and Customs That Were Considered Normal
Portrait of the baker Terentius Neo and his wife. Found in the collection of Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. (Photo Credit: Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images)

Also.... They would flood the Colosseum so the audience could see a naval battle
The Colosseum was the most popular entertainment venue in the Roman Empire. People could watch gladiator matches or chariot racing. On occasion, the Colosseum would be flooded, and specially-made ships brought into the arena so that a naval battle could be re-enacted for the audience.

10 Bizarre Ancient Roman Laws and Customs That Were Considered Normal
Colosseum with Stations of the Cross. Engraving. (Photo Credit: Clop, Public Domain)

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Wednesday, 22 June 2022

Ancient City Machu Picchu Was Originally Called Huayna Picchu By The Incas – Study Of The Name Reveals

Machu Picchu is among the most recognized archaeological sites in the world. A lasting symbol of the Inca Empire, it’s one of the most visited attractions in Latin America and at the heart of the Peruvian tourist industry.

More than 110 years after Hiram Bingham’s first visit to the site, researchers reviewed Bingham’s original field notes, early 20th century maps of the region, and centuries-old land documents from different archives. Their findings suggest that less was known about the site than what was previously thought.

Ancient City Machu Picchu Was Originally Called Huayna Picchu By The Incas – Study Of The Name Reveals
Machu Picchu, Peru. Credit: Pixabay – illusion-X – Public Domain

When Hiram Bingham first visited the ruins in 1911 and then brought them to the world’s attention, they were little known, even among those who lived in Peru’s Cusco region.

More than 110 years after Bingham’s first visit to the site, historian Donato Amado Gonzales from the Ministry of Culture of Peru (Cusco) and archeologist Brian S. Bauer from the University of Illinois Chicago reviewed Bingham’s original field notes, early 20th century maps of the region, and centuries-old land documents from different archives. Their findings suggest that less was known about the site than what was previously thought.

In their paper, published by Ñawpa Pacha: Journal of Andean Archaeology, the researchers conclude that the Incas originally called it Huayna Picchu, for the rocky summit that lies nearest to the site, and not Machu Picchu, which is the name of the highest mountain near the ancient city.

“We began with the uncertainty of the name of the ruins when Bingham first visited them and then reviewed several maps and atlases printed before Bingham’s visit to the ruins,” said Bauer, UIC professor of anthropology. “There is significant data which suggest that the Inca city actually was called Picchu or more likely, Huayna Picchu.”

The researchers found that the ruins of an Inca town called Huayna Picchu is mentioned in a 1904 atlas that was published seven years before Bingham arrived in Peru. Additionally, they detail that Bingham was told in 1911 of ruins called Huayna Picchu along the Urubamba River before he left Cusco to search for the remains. A landowner’s son later told Bingham in 1912 that the ruins were called Huayna Picchu.

Ancient City Machu Picchu Was Originally Called Huayna Picchu By The Incas – Study Of The Name Reveals
Photograph of Machu Picchu taken by Hiram Bingham III in 1912 after major clearing and before reconstruction work began. Credit: Public Domain

According to Bauer, the most definitive connections to the original name of the Inca city are preserved within accounts written by Spaniards relatively soon after the region came under their control in the late 16th century.

“We end with a stunning, late 16th-century account when the indigenous people of the region were considering returning to reoccupy the site which they called Huayna Picchu,” he said.

Saturday, 18 June 2022

Never-Before-Seen Magnificent 2,000-Year-Old Second Temple Found By Western Wall In Jerusalem Revealed To The Public

Scientists have unearthed the remains of a 2,000-year-old building in Jerusalem. The lavish Second Temple was destroyed by Romans, but the public has now been granted a unique opportunity to explore the magnificent building that is of great historical value.

Never-Before-Seen Magnificent 2,000-Year-Old Second Temple Found By Western Wall In Jerusalem Revealed To The Public
Remains of the magnificent 2000-year-old building recently excavated and due to be opened to the public. 

“This is, without a doubt, one of the most magnificent public buildings from the Second Temple period ever uncovered outside the Temple Mount walls in Jerusalem.

Built around 20–30 CE, the building stood along a major public street near entrances leading up to the Temple Mount and was used for public functions – perhaps serving as the city council building where important dignitaries were received before entering the Temple compound and the Temple Mount,” said Dr. Shlomit Weksler-Bdolach in a press statement.

Remains of the magnificent 2000-year-old building recently excavated and due to be opened to the public.
Credit: Yaniv Berman/Israeli Antiquities Authority

The building was first discovered by Charles Warren in the nineteenth century just west of the Temple Mount near the famous Wilson’s Arch, and it has taken archaeologists years to excavate the site, but the results are worth the effort.

Now that excavations have ended, we know the structure was composed of two identical rooms with an elaborate fountain between them. The walls of the rooms and the fountain were decorated with corniced pilasters (flat supporting pillars) topped with Corinthian capitals, a rare decorative architectural style reserved for opulent structures during the Second Temple period.

The excavation also uncovered the building’s original floor pavement, made from massive stone slabs. Archaeologists believe that the rooms were used for dining with wooden reclining couches that were not preserved.

Dining rooms equipped with recliner couches were common in private homes, palaces, temples, synagogue complexes, and civilian compounds across the Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman worlds from the fifth century BCE to the third-fourth centuries CE. Dining or feasting was typically done while reclining and is even mentioned in the Book of Amos – dated to the first half of the eighth century BCE – when the prophet rebukes the people of the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel.

Never-Before-Seen Magnificent 2,000-Year-Old Second Temple Found By Western Wall In Jerusalem Revealed To The Public
Credit: Yaniv Berman/Israeli Antiquities Authority

In the late Second Temple period, before the destruction of the Temple, extensive changes were made throughout the area including alterations to the building – dividing it into three separate chambers. In one of the chambers, a stepped pool was installed and was used as a ritual bath.

“It is exciting to reveal such a magnificent structure from the Second Temple period while we mourn the destruction of Jerusalem and pray for its restoration. The rooms are a part of a new tour route featured at the Western Wall Tunnels, where visitors can see fascinating artifacts and for the first time, can view remains from the Second Temple-period along the entire route demonstrating the complexity of Jewish life in Jerusalem between the Hasmonean and the Roman period,” Mordechai Soli Eliav, Chairman of the Western Wall Heritage Foundation said.

“The new route allows visitors a much better understanding of the important Western Wall Tunnel complex and will also emphasize the full extent of this magnificent building.

The new route will allow visitors to view the massive building located at the foot of Wilson’s Arch, which supported one of the bridges leading to the Temple Mount and was recently excavated by the Western Wall Heritage Foundation and the Israel Antiquities Authority.

By making the route accessible and open to the public, visitors are introduced to one of the most fascinating and impressive sites in the Old City of Jerusalem,” Shachar Puni, architect of the Israel Antiquities Authority’s Conservation Department explained.

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Thursday, 16 June 2022

Legend of The Lost City of Caesars, The Invisible Land of Patagonia

Ancient ruins in a jungle. Source: warmtail / Adobe Stock
Ancient ruins in a jungle. Source: warmtail / Adobe Stock

The City of Caesars, otherwise known as the Wandering City, is a legendary land that is said to have existed in Patagonia, in between present-day Chile and Argentina. According to historical accounts, it was a city rich with gold and diamonds, and with inhabitants that have been described in a variety of ways, from European-looking to giants. Although reports of its existence circulated for 200 years, no trace of it has ever been found.

The legend is reminiscent of El Dorado , Colombia’s lost city of gold, the Lost City of Z , a supposed city of riches in the jungles of Chile, and Paititi, the legendary last city of the Inca in the Peruvian Andes.

Search for the City of Caesars

In 1515, the Spaniard explorer Juan de Solis and his men were attacked by natives while undertaking an expedition near present day Buenos Aires. Rumor spread that the survivors of de Solis’ party trekked inland toward Patagonia, where they landed upon a fantastic city inhabited by a race of white men.

The first reference of the city comes from  Francisco Cesar  , who went on an expedition in Argentina in 1528. According to Francisco, they found a rich city made of precious metals deep inside the Andean mountains, which he called Ciudad de los Césares (tthe City of Caesars').

Hearing of the rumors, Jesuit missionaries in Patagonia, believing the City of Caesars to be an island of salvation, joined in the search.

In 1540, a shipwreck in the straits of Magellan resulted in the loss of about 200 lives. The twist in the story occurred when in 1563—23 years later—two of the lost crew returned to Chile and told the story of their adventure and how they discovered a city full of treasures attributed to the Inca. Yet another story originated in the 17th century and refers to Spanish colonists who found a city which they believed was the lost City of Caesars.

Andean lakes with mountains in Argentine Patagonia. Source: Bruno/ Adobe Stock
Andean lakes with mountains in Argentine Patagonia. Source: Bruno/ Adobe Stock

The Argentine Fort, Remnants of the Lost City?

More research in our century has been done by the  Delphos Foundation  who report that a rock formation found in the province of Rio Negro in Argentine, known as ‘Argentine Fort’, is part of the City of Caesars.

According to this research, they believe this fortress was built by the Templars to protect the Holy Grail. According to many researchers, the Templars  travelled to America   before Christopher Colombus, and one  theory mentions that the Holy Grail, along with the rest of the Templar treasure, made its way to America before the massacre of the Templar Knights.

The researchers of the Delphos Foundation support their  hypothesis with maps, specifically a  map published in 1865 by Juan Antonio Victor Martin de Moussy, a cartographer who refers to the Fort as the ‘Ancient abandoned Fort’. The Delphos Foundation led many expeditions to the area from 1997 to 2006.

Whether the Fortress is the key to finding the mythical city or not is something yet to be discovered; but what is clear is that the search for untold riches in remote lands has captivated the hopes and dreams of explorers for centuries.

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Tuesday, 14 June 2022

Alien Artifacts From Ancient Egypt Found In Jerusalem & Kept Secret by Rockefeller Museum

Alien enthusiasts have been left fascinated by reports of ancient Egyptian artifacts that were discovered in the home of famous Egyptologist Sir William Petrie. The artifacts are believed to be the ultimate proof of alien contact and are said to rewrite not only Ancient Egyptian history but the history of the entire planet. Like many other ‘controversial objects’ these mysterious artifacts were also kept a secret.

Alien artifacts from ancient Egypt found in Jerusalem & kept secret by Rockefeller Museum

So, where do we start?

A YouTube video posted by Paranormal Crucible purports to show alleged ancient Egyptian artifacts and sculptures which were found at the Giza plateau. These items were reportedly taken away from Petrie’s home in Jerusalem by ‘officials belonging to the Rockefeller Archaeological Museum’ after the discovery was made reports popular UFO portal UFO Sightings Daily.

The reports of the alleged artifacts captured the internet as you would expect.

According to Intellihub News, the alleged ‘otherworldly’ artifacts were discovered in a secret room in the home of Sir William Petrie.

It is sad that the renowned Egyptologist had found ultimate proof of alien life before he died in 1942, but instead of sharing the discovery, for some reasons he decided to hide the artifacts away in his home.

Now, according to reports, these items have been taken by the Rockefeller Museum and like many other discoveries that contradict mainstream history, these too could be hidden from society.

Interestingly, the Inquisitr decided to dig further and was able to confirm that the prestigious Petri Museum of Egyptian Archaeology has in their possession a grandiose collection of ancient Egyptian and Sudanese items which include ancient Egyptian “firsts,” such as the “oldest linen” and “oldest dress” from ancient Egypt (5,000 B.C.).

The Petri Museum also displays some of the earliest examples of Metallurgy in Ancient Egypt.

However, as the Inquisitr indicates they were NOT able to confirm that the museum has displayed ‘Alien Artifacts’ discovered in Egypt, nor recovered from a secret room in Petrie’s residence in Jerusalem.

But this may be because these items contradict history and mainstream beliefs say ufo researchers who believe in the story. Like many other things that go against the beliefs of mainstream scholars, these artifacts too have been locked away from society.

As always, sensational stories require sensational evidence.

According to the editor of Intellihub News, the Ancient Egyptian artifacts found in Petrie’s residence in Jerusalem directly link the ancient Egyptian civilization to an advanced civilization, not from Earth.

Among the artifacts –now in possession of the Rockefeller museum— are two alleged mummified bodies of approximately four feet in height. Some have even speculated that these mummified bodies could be the remains of ‘alien’ visitors.

According to reports from Intellihub News, the physical features of the alleged mummified bodies indicate their possible alien nature. According to the editor of the website, the anomalous skeletons have “stereotypical alien “elongated heads, large eye sockets, and long spiral arms.”

Alien artifacts from ancient Egypt found in Jerusalem & kept secret by Rockefeller Museum

But as if the mummified bodies weren’t enough, it is said that among the artifacts were “highly advanced” mechanical devices and a golden spherical object with strange writings.

Intellihub News’ editor indicates that the high-tech devices have “an intricate mechanism which is surrounded by gold spiral tubing that has several small gold orbs and crosses attached to it.”
Is it possible that the alleged artifacts are part of ‘interstellar navigational devices’?

Intellihub News points towards Abydos and the temple built by Seti I, and his son Ramses II, where we can observe the so-called Flying machines of Abydos.

There, we are able to ‘spot’ what seem to be representations of modern day vehicles like Helicopters, submarines, and aircraft.

The only problem is that these inscriptions are believed to be thousands of years old.

Scientists believe these are not aircraft but the result of a psychological phenomenon called pareidolia.

However, there are more mysteries when it comes to Ancient Egypt and Aliens.

But is it just because we would love to find a connection between one of the greatest civilizations to inhabit Earth and alien visitors?

Well, it is a possibility, but there are more interesting details worth looking at.

An Ancient Egyptian text called the Tulli Papyrus mentions a fascinating story during the reign of Thutmose III when an alleged mass UFO sighting occurred over ancient Egypt.

The ancient text reads (translated):

“In the year 22, of the third month of winter, sixth hour of the day […] among the scribes of the House of Life it was found that a strange Fiery Disk was coming in the sky. It had no head. The breath of its mouth emitted a foul odor.

 Its body was one rod in length and one rod in width. It had no voice. It came toward His Majesty’s house. Their heart became confused through it, and they fell upon their bellies. They [went] to the king, to report it. His Majesty [ordered that] the scrolls [located] in the House of Life be consulted. His Majesty meditated on all these events which were now going on.

After several days had passed, they became more numerous in the sky than ever. They shined in the sky more than the brightness of the sun, and extended to the limits of the four supports of heaven […] Powerful was the position of the Fiery Disks.

The army of the King looked on, with His Majesty in their midst. It was after the evening meal when the Disks ascended even higher in the sky to the south. Fish and other volatiles rained down from the sky: a marvel never before known since the foundation of the country. And His Majesty caused incense to be brought to appease the heart of Amun-Re, the god of the Two Lands. And it was [ordered] that the event [be recorded for] His Majesty in the Annals of the House of Life [to be remembered] for ever.”

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Saturday, 11 June 2022

Home to 20,000, But Who Built it? The Underground City of Derinkuyu

Home to 20,000, But Who Built it? The Underground City of Derinkuyu
The underground city of Derinkuyu in Turkey. Source: ninelutsk / Adobe Stock

Deep under the Turkish town of Derinkuyu, there’s an entire world reaching 85 meters (279 ft) into the earth. Covering a vast area and with a network of labyrinthine tunnels, Derinkuyu was lost to history until 1963 when a man accidentally discovered a tunnel behind one of the walls of his house. The underground city is actually 18 stories deep, with wells, chapels, stables, schools and more, and is said to have been able to accommodate up to 20,000 people.

The subterranean city of Derinkuyu was discovered by accident in the 1960s. (Yasir999 / CC BY-SA 4.0 )
The subterranean city of Derinkuyu was discovered by accident in the 1960s. (Yasir999 / CC BY-SA 4.0 )

Reaching Deep into the Earth: The “Forgotten” City of Derinkuyu

Carved into the region’s soft volcanic rock, known as tuff, within the Cappadocia region of Turkey, creating the underground city was an incredible feat. The complex is a stunning example of ancient engineering, complete with ventilation shafts, wells, water tanks, and an extensive network of passages and tunnels.

It is believed that more than 600 entrances to the city exist, most of them hidden, to the vast underground city which covered 445 km2 (172 mi2). There are stables, apartments, communal rooms, chapels, tombs, and even wine and oil presses. The passageways are “secured” by 1,000 pound (454 kg) stone doors that could only be opened from the inside.

One of the labyrinthine passages within the underground city of Derinkuyu in Turkey. (Nevit Dilmen / CC BY-SA 3.0)
One of the labyrinthine passages within the underground city of Derinkuyu in Turkey. (Nevit Dilmen / CC BY-SA 3.0)

In the interest of added security, each level could be isolated from the others, even though all levels were able to access one another. “Those living on the bottom levels… were able to cut off the water supply to the upper and ground levels, preventing enemies from poisoning the supply,” explained a report in IFLS. “The tunnels could be blocked from the inside with round rolling stone doors, and the passageways themselves were narrow to force any invaders to line up one at a time.”

What is most astonishing is that this vast network of tunnels and living spaces was abandoned and forgotten. IFLS reported that Derinkuyu was only rediscovered in 1963, when a local man used a sledgehammer on his wall and came face to face with an entire underground world carved into the soft rock. It was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List as a site entitled Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia.

Ventilation well in the Derinkuyu underground city in Turkey. (Nevit Dilmen / CC BY-SA 3.0 )
Ventilation well in the Derinkuyu underground city in Turkey. (Nevit Dilmen / CC BY-SA 3.0 )

The Underground Cities of Cappadocia

Derinkuyu isn’t the only underground city in Cappadocia. In fact, it’s said to be just one of over 200 underground safe havens that have been discovered carved into the volcanic ash rock, which include Kaymakli near Nevsehir and Mazi near Urgup. Some claim that residents at Derinkuyu could visit other underground cities via an immense tunnel network.

As recently as 2015, National Geographic reported the discovery of yet another underground city under a hilltop castle in Nevşehir during the construction of a local housing project. Rivalling Derinkuyu in size, “the site appears to have been a large, self-sustaining complex with air shafts and water channels.” Initial surveys conducted by Nevşehir University appeared to conclude that the site was 113 meters (371 ft) deep and covered five million square feet (460,000 square meters), making it bigger than Derinkuyu.

Who Built the Underground City of Derinkuyu?

Until recently the origin and purpose of the city were unknown. According to the Turkish Department of Culture, the city was built 2,800 years ago in the 8th century BC by the Indo-European Phrygians. It was later enlarged during the Byzantine era, probably by the Christians whom historians believe used it as a hiding place to avoid persecution.

The church that exists in the lowest floor may verify this theory. As recently as the 20th century, it was also used as a place to escape persecution during the Ottoman Empire. Culture Trip explains that the underground city was abandoned from 1923 with the expelling of Christians by the Turkish government and was only rediscovered in the 1960s.

But, there are alternative theories. Some claim that the underground city was built by Anatolian Hittites in the 15th century BC in order to flee enemies. Others have hypothesized that the underground cities were created during the Younger Dryas Event about 14,500 years ago, when a comet broke apart sending segments exploding within Earths atmosphere, throwing dust and soot into the atmosphere blotting out the sun for months, causing temperatures to drop and plunging the world into an Ice Age. This theory posits that these underground cities would have been created at the same time as Göbekli Tepe just 600 kilometers (370 mi) to the east of Derinkuyu.

As usual, there are also those who relate the creation and purpose of these underground cities to aliens. One such theory is that the city was built by extraterrestrial beings who later abandoned the city. Another speculates that the city was created by humans to protect themselves from air invasions by extraterrestrial beings.

As Jim Willis stated in an Ancient Origins article, “only one thing  is known for sure. They are there. Someone built them a long time ago, perhaps further back in time than modern archaeologists are willing to admit. The original builders must have had a compelling reason to pull off such an audacious feat, but then they became lost to history, their presence completely forgotten. And no one knows why.”

Visitor at the Derinkuyu underground city in Turkey. (natalia_maroz / Adobe Stock)
Visitor at the Derinkuyu underground city in Turkey. (natalia_maroz / Adobe Stock)

Visiting the Underground City of Derinkuyu

The ancient underground city of Derinkuyu can be found just 35 km (21.7 mi) south of Göreme. Added to the World Heritage List in 1985, it is now a major tourist destination. Hidden beneath the dusty streets of Derinkuyu, it is open every day and can be accessed by paying an entry fee.

There is little in the way of signage, so you should visit with a guide. The top eight floors are open to the public, but it’s important you’re in good shape as you’ll be moving up and down very steep staircases and through narrow tunnels. This ancient site is not recommended for the claustrophobic.

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